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Our presentation shows there is a space for the second-tier APT classification, one where the actor provides breach services to a larger actor, almost mimicking what happens in the crimeware scene, where some groups just gather credentials which they then sell to other crimeware groups. There are other groups that may offer hacking-as-a-service, but rather than working for the highest bidder, they serve a specific country or group, perhaps to align with their own intentions. At the same time, these groups will do whatever is best to maximize their gains. The advantage in this case is that they benefit from the “protection” of the APT for which they provide the services. Finally, this second-tier category should also include the APTs that lack the sophistication of others and often have their operations exposed due to bad opsec or amateuristic mistakes. We believe that challenging the status quo on Gamaredon and others that could fit the previous definition, is beneficial as a whole. It will help organizations better understand the threats that they must focus their resources on. The fact remains Gamaredon remains a notoriously prolific group operating without any constraints on a globally impacting level.